At least 200 civilians have been killed in Russian air strikes in Syria, an Amnesty International report says, quoting witnesses and activists.
It says it "researched remotely" more than 25 Russian attacks in five areas between 30 September and 29 November.
The findings indicate "serious failures [by Russia] to respect international humanitarian law", Amnesty says.
Moscow has repeatedly denied causing civilian deaths, describing such claims as part of "information warfare".
Russia began air strikes targeting Islamic State militants (IS) and other groups on 30 September, saying it was acting at the request of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.